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German defensive changes: late 1917
On 7 October, the 4th Army again dispersed its troops in the front defence zone. Reserve battalions moved back behind the artillery protective line and the Eingreif divisions were organised to intervene as swiftly as possible once an attack commenced, despite the risk of being devastated by the British artillery. Counter-battery fire to reduce British artillery fire was to be increased, to protect the Eingreif divisions as they advanced. All of the German divisions holding front zones were relieved and an extra division brought forward, as the British advances had lengthened the front line. Without the forces necessary for a counter-offensive south of the Gheluvelt plateau towards Kemmel Hill, Rupprecht began to plan for a slow withdrawal from the Ypres salient, even at the risk of uncovering German positions further north and the Belgian coast.

Battle of Poelcappelle
The French First Army and British Second and Fifth armies attacked on 9 October, on a 13,500 yards (12,300 m) front, from south of Broodseinde to St. Jansbeek, to advance half of the distance from Broodseinde ridge to Passchendaele, on the main front, which led to many casualties on both sides. Advances in the north of the attack front were retained by British and French troops but most of the ground taken in front of Passchendaele and on the Becelaere and Gheluvelt spurs was lost to German counter-attacks. General William Birdwood later wrote that the return of heavy rain and mud sloughs was the main cause of the failure to hold captured ground. Kuhl concluded that the fighting strained German fighting power to the limit but that the German forces managed to prevent a breakthrough, although it was becoming much harder to replace losses.

First Battle of Passchendaele Passchendaele:パッシェンデール
The First Battle of Passchendaele on 12 October, was another Allied attempt to gain ground around Passchendaele. Heavy rain and mud again made movement difficult and little artillery could be brought closer to the front. Allied troops were exhausted and morale had fallen.

投稿日時 - 2017-06-10 22:18:15

QNo.9339681

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>German defensive changes: late 1917
On 7 October, the 4th Army again dispersed its troops in the front defence zone. Reserve battalions moved back behind the artillery protective line and the Eingreif divisions were organised to intervene as swiftly as possible once an attack commenced, despite the risk of being devastated by the British artillery. Counter-battery fire to reduce British artillery fire was to be increased, to protect the Eingreif divisions as they advanced.
⇒ドイツ軍防御体制の変化:1917年後半
10月7日、第4方面軍は再び前線の防御地帯に軍隊を分散させた。予備大隊は砲兵隊守備戦線の背後に戻り、攻撃が始まったらアイングリーフ師団は、英国砲兵隊によってくじかれる危険があるにもかかわらず、できるだけ迅速に介入できるように組織された。英国軍の大砲砲火を減らしてアイングリーフ師団を保護するために、反砲撃の砲火が増やされることになっていた。

>All of the German divisions holding front zones were relieved and an extra division brought forward, as the British advances had lengthened the front line. Without the forces necessary for a counter-offensive south of the Gheluvelt plateau towards Kemmel Hill, Rupprecht began to plan for a slow withdrawal from the Ypres salient, even at the risk of uncovering German positions further north and the Belgian coast.
⇒英国軍が進軍によって最前線を延ばし広げたので、前線地帯を保持するドイツ軍師団も全体的な救援・補強を施して、余分の師団は前方へ送り出した。ゲルヴェルト台地南でケメル・ヒル方向への反撃のために必要な軍隊が欠如しているので、ルプレヒトはさらに北のドイツ軍陣地とベルギー海岸の掩護が欠落する危険をおかしてまで、イープル突出部からのゆるやかな撤退を計画し始めた。

>Battle of Poelcappelle
The French First Army and British Second and Fifth armies attacked on 9 October, on a 13,500 yards (12,300 m) front, from south of Broodseinde to St. Jansbeek, to advance half of the distance from Broodseinde ridge to Passchendaele, on the main front, which led to many casualties on both sides. Advances in the north of the attack front were retained by British and French troops but most of the ground taken in front of Passchendaele and on the Becelaere and Gheluvelt spurs was lost to German counter-attacks.
⇒「ポエルカッペルの戦い」
10月9日、フランス第1方面軍と英国第2、第5方面軍が、ブルードサインデの南からサン・ヤンスビークまで、13,500ヤード(12,300m)の前線を攻撃して、ブルードサインデ尾根からパッシェンデールまでの距離の半分まで、主要前線を進軍・攻撃した。両側ともに多くの犠牲者を出すに至った。攻撃(予定)前線北部の(既)進軍域は英仏の軍隊によって保持されたが、パッシェンデール前線やベセレールの大部分の地面、およびゲルヴェルト山脚はドイツ軍の反撃で失われた。

>General William Birdwood later wrote that the return of heavy rain and mud sloughs was the main cause of the failure to hold captured ground. Kuhl concluded that the fighting strained German fighting power to the limit but that the German forces managed to prevent a breakthrough, although it was becoming much harder to replace losses.
⇒ウィリアム・バードウッド将軍は、後に、豪雨と泥地の復活が、攻略した地面を占拠することに関する失敗の主要な原因であった、と書いた。キュールは、戦いが限界までドイツ軍戦闘力の重圧となって、損失を補充するのが非常に難しくなっていったが、ドイツ軍隊は完全突破されること(だけ)は何とか防ぐことができた、と結論した。

>First Battle of Passchendaele
The First Battle of Passchendaele on 12 October, was another Allied attempt to gain ground around Passchendaele. Heavy rain and mud again made movement difficult and little artillery could be brought closer to the front. Allied troops were exhausted and morale had fallen.
⇒「第1次パッシェンデールの戦い」
10月12日の「第1次パッシェンデールの戦い」は、パッシェンデール周辺の地面を獲得しようとする、もう1つの連合国軍の企てであった。豪雨と泥が再び動きを困難にして、前線近くへ送ることができた砲兵隊は少なかった。 同盟国軍は疲弊していて、士気が落ちてしまっていた。

投稿日時 - 2017-06-16 13:24:38

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回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2017-06-16 19:54:11

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