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The X Corps divisions had managed to take most of their objectives about 700 yd (640 m) forward, gaining observation over the Reutelbeek valley but had relinquished ground in some exposed areas. The British artillery fired a standing barrage for two and a half hours, while the infantry dug in undisturbed and German counter-attacks were dispersed with artillery fire. Wet ground had caused some units to lag behind the creeping barrage, as well as reducing the effect of shells, many landing in mud and being smothered, although this affected German artillery equally. The British had great difficulty moving artillery and ammunition from the west end of the Gheluvelt Plateau to the eastern edge, facing Passchendaele. Field guns closest to Passchendaele were 5,000 yd (4,600 m) from Broodseinde; for the battle of Messines, 6,200 yd (5,700 m) for the 18-pdrs and 7,000 yd (6,400 m) for the 4.5-inch howitzers was the safe maximum. A German officer wrote that the ordeal in the swampy area in the dark and the fog, was indescribable. In 1942, the German official historians recorded in Der Weltkrieg 35,000 casualties for the period 1–10 October. The 45th Reserve Division had 2,883 casualties, whilst the 4th Guard Division suffered 2,786 casualties. 4,759 German prisoners were taken, c. 10,000 since 20 September. Second Army casualties for the week ending 4 October were 12,256, II Anzac Corps lost 3,500 casualties (including 1,853 New Zealanders). The 21st Division had 2,616 casualties, the highest loss of a Second Army division. Fifth Army losses for the week to 5 October were 3,305 men. Calculations of German losses by the Official Historian have been severely criticised ever since. On 5 October, the 21st Division captured a blockhouse and next day a reconnaissance by the 2nd Australian Division revealed Daisy Wood to be strongly held. On 7 October, parties from the 49th Division (II Anzac Corps) raided Celtic Wood and the 48th Division (XVIII Corps) was repulsed at Burns House and Vacher Farm. Celtic Wood was raided by a battalion of the 1st Australian Division on 9 October. There was anxiety among the higher British commanders about wet weather affecting operations again, just as the Germans appeared to be close to collapse.

投稿日時 - 2017-09-11 22:15:09

QNo.9373545

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>The X Corps divisions had managed to take most of their objectives about 700 yd (640 m) forward, gaining observation over the Reutelbeek valley but had relinquished ground in some exposed areas. The British artillery fired a standing barrage for two and a half hours, while the infantry dug in undisturbed and German counter-attacks were dispersed with artillery fire. Wet ground had caused some units to lag behind the creeping barrage, as well as reducing the effect of shells, many landing in mud and being smothered, although this affected German artillery equally.
⇒第X隊師団は何とかして700ヤード(640m)前方の標的をほとんど奪取し、リューテルベーク渓谷上の観察(眺望)を獲得したが、露出したままの地域の地面は幾つか放棄した。英国軍の砲兵隊は、待機していた集中砲火を2時間半の間発砲して、その間に歩兵隊が平穏のうちに塹壕を掘ってこもり、ドイツ軍の反撃隊は大砲火によって霧散した。湿った地面のせいで数個部隊が纏いつく集中砲火の背後で手間取ったのみならず、砲弾が泥地に着弾して土中に潜り、砲撃の効果が削減された。もっとも、これはドイツの大砲にも等しく影響した。

>The British had great difficulty moving artillery and ammunition from the west end of the Gheluvelt Plateau to the eastern edge, facing Passchendaele. Field guns closest to Passchendaele were 5,000 yd (4,600 m) from Broodseinde; for the battle of Messines, 6,200 yd (5,700 m) for the 18-pdrs and 7,000 yd (6,400 m) for the 4.5-inch howitzers was the safe maximum. A German officer wrote that the ordeal in the swampy area in the dark and the fog, was indescribable. In 1942, the German official historians recorded in Der Weltkrieg 35,000 casualties for the period 1–10 October.
⇒英国軍は、ゲルヴェルト高原の西端からパッシェンデールに直面する東の辺縁部まで大砲や弾薬を移動するのに大変な苦労をした。パッシェンデールに最も近い野戦砲は、ブルードサインデから5,000ヤード(4,600m)のところにあった。メッシネス(メセン)の戦いの際は、18型ポンド砲で6,200ヤード(5,700m)が、4.5インチ曲射砲で7,000ヤード(6,400m)が安全(移動)の最大値であった。あるドイツ軍将校は、闇と霧に包まれた湿地での厳しい試練は名状しがたいほどであった、と書いた。1942年に、ドイツ公報史家は、「世界大戦」(Der Weltkrieg)の10月1日-10日期間における死傷者数は35,000人であったと記録した。

>The 45th Reserve Division had 2,883 casualties, whilst the 4th Guard Division suffered 2,786 casualties. 4,759 German prisoners were taken, c. 10,000 since 20 September. Second Army casualties for the week ending 4 October were 12,256, II Anzac Corps lost 3,500 casualties (including 1,853 New Zealanders). The 21st Division had 2,616 casualties, the highest loss of a Second Army division. Fifth Army losses for the week to 5 October were 3,305 men. Calculations of German losses by the Official Historian have been severely criticised ever since.
⇒第45予備師団は2,883人の死傷者数を被った一方、第4護衛師団は2,786人の死傷者数を被った。4,759人のドイツの囚人が捕縛されたが、9月20日以来だと約10,000人になる。週末10月4日で、第2方面軍の死傷者数は12,256人であったが、第IIアンザック軍団は3,500人(1,853人のニュージーランド軍を含む)の死傷者数を失った。第21師団は2,616人の死傷者数を被って、第2方面軍師団の最大の損失であった。10月5日までの週では、第5方面軍の損失は兵士3,305人であった。公報史家によるドイツ軍の損失の計算は、それ以来厳しく批判されている。

>On 5 October, the 21st Division captured a blockhouse and next day a reconnaissance by the 2nd Australian Division revealed Daisy Wood to be strongly held. On 7 October, parties from the 49th Division (II Anzac Corps) raided Celtic Wood and the 48th Division (XVIII Corps) was repulsed at Burns House and Vacher Farm. Celtic Wood was raided by a battalion of the 1st Australian Division on 9 October. There was anxiety among the higher British commanders about wet weather affecting operations again, just as the Germans appeared to be close to collapse.
⇒10月5日に、第21師団は防塞を攻略して、その翌日第2オーストラリア師団による斥候調査が、デイジー・ウッドは強力に保持されていることを明らかにした。10月7日に、第49師団(第IIアンザック軍団)から来た数個小隊はケルト・ウッドを急襲したが、第48師団(第XVIII軍団)はバーンズ・ハウスとヴァチェル農場で追い返された。そのケルト・ウッドは(また)10月9日に第1オーストラリア師団の大隊に急襲された。英国軍司令部高官の間には、ちょうどドイツ軍が崩壊間近と見えるだけに、雨天の天候が再度作戦行動に影響するのではないかという懸念があった。

投稿日時 - 2017-09-18 10:15:42

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。関係がない質問で恐縮ですが、「グミは油分も大変少なくよく噛んで食べれば空腹感もコントロールできる。」というのは英語でどのように書きますか?宜しければ教えて下さい。

投稿日時 - 2017-09-18 20:41:54

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