The Siege of Przemyśl was the longest siege of the First World War, and a crushing defeat for Austria-Hungary against the Russian attackers. Przemyśl (German: Premissel) was a fortress town on the River San and a Galician stronghold. The investment of Przemyśl began on September 16, 1914, and was briefly suspended on October 11 due to an Austro-Hungarian offensive. The siege resumed again on November 9 and the Austro-Hungarian garrison surrendered on March 22, 1915, after holding out for a total of 133 days. In August 1914 Russian armies moved against both German East Prussia and Austria-Hungary's largest province of Eastern Galicia, straddling the present-day Poland/Ukraine border. Its advance into Germany was soon repulsed but its Galician campaign was more successful. General Nikolai Ivanov overwhelmed the Austro-Hungarian forces under Conrad von Hötzendorf[citation needed] during the Battle of Galicia, and the whole Austrian front fell back over 160 kilometres (100 mi) to the Carpathian Mountains. The fortress at Przemyśl was the only Austrian post that held out and by September 28 was completely behind Russian lines. The Russians were now in a position to threaten the German industrial region of Silesia, making the defense of Przemyśl of importance to the Germans as well as the Austro-Hungarians.
50 kilometres (30 mi) of new trenches were dug and 1,000 km (650 mi) of barbed wire were used to make seven new lines of defence around the perimeter of the town. Inside the fortress a military garrison of 127,000 as well as 18,000 civilians were surrounded by six Russian divisions. Przemyśl reflected the nature of the Austro-Hungarian Empire - orders of the day had to be issued in fifteen languages. Austrians, Poles, Jews and Ukrainians were together in the besieged town, that was hit constantly with artillery fire, and as the toll of dead and sick and wounded rose, and starvation threatened, so did mutual distrust and racial tension. On September 24, General Radko Dimitriev, commander of the Russian Third Army began the siege of the fortress. Dimitriev was without sufficient siege artillery when he began the investment and instead of waiting for the Russian high command to send him the artillery pieces, Dimitriev ordered a full-scale assault on the fortress before an Austrian relief force could be sent. For three days the Russians attacked and accomplished nothing at the cost of 40,000 casualties. While this was under way General Paul von Hindenburg launched an offensive against Warsaw in the north. In conjunction with the German attack on Warsaw, General Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna led a relief force towards Przemyśl. On October 11 Dimitriev lifted the siege and withdrew across the San River. Conrad von Hötzendorf had hopes that a combined assault from Boroevic's army and the Przemyśl garrison would inflict a severe blow on the Russians.

The Siege of Przemyśl プシェムィシル包囲戦

投稿日時 - 2019-05-18 14:37:06




>The Siege of Przemyśl ~ present-day Poland/Ukraine border.

>Its advance into Germany ~ as the Austro-Hungarians.

>50 kilometres (30 mi) of new trenches ~ the siege of the fortress.
⇒町の周囲に7つの新しい防衛線を作るために50キロ(30マイル)の新しい塹壕が掘られ、1,000キロ(650マイル)の有刺鉄線が使用された。要塞の内側には、127,000人の軍守備隊と18,000人の一般市民が6つのロシア軍師団に囲まれていた。プシェムィシルは、オーストリア‐ハンガリー帝国(成り立ち)の性質を反映していた ― その日の命令は15もの言語で出されなければならなかった。オーストリア人、ポーランド人、ユダヤ人、そしてウクライナ人は、包囲された町内に一緒にいて、終始砲撃で襲われていたので、死者と病人と負傷者の悲報が増え、飢餓に脅かされ、相互信頼にもひびが入って民族間の緊張も高まった。9月24日、ロシア第3方面軍の司令官ラドコ・ディミトリエフ将軍が要塞の包囲を始めた。

>Dimitriev was without sufficient ~ severe blow on the Russians.

投稿日時 - 2019-05-23 20:12:15



投稿日時 - 2019-05-26 01:26:17