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Low crops in the unfenced countryside offered no natural concealment to the Allies. Deep, narrow paths cut into the escarpment at right angles, exposing any infiltrators to extreme hazard. The forces on the northern plateau commanded a wide field of fire.
In dense fog on the night of 13 September, most of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) crossed the Aisne on pontoons or partially demolished bridges, landing at Bourg-et-Comin on the right and at Venizel on the left. At Chivres-Val east of Venizel, there was an escarpment the Germans had selected as their strongest position. The French Fifth Army crossed the Aisne at Berry-au-Bac and captured the eastern tip of Chemin des Dames, a steep ridge named after the royal coach road Louis XV had built for his daughters. Contact was established along the entire front. East of Chemin des Dames, the French Fourth, Fifth and Ninth armies made only negligible progress beyond the positions they had reached on 13 September. Under the thick cover of the foggy night, the BEF advanced up the narrow paths to the plateau. When the mist evaporated under a bright morning sun, they were mercilessly raked by fire from the flank. Those caught in the valley without the fog's protective shroud fared no better.
It soon became clear that neither side could budge the other and since neither chose to retreat, the impasse hardened into stalemate, that would lock the antagonists into a relatively narrow strip for the next four years. On 14 September, Sir John French ordered the entire BEF to entrench, but few entrenching tools were available. Soldiers scouted nearby farms and villages for pickaxes, spades and other implements. Without training for stationary warfare, the troops merely dug shallow pits in the soil. These were at first intended only to afford cover against enemy observation and artillery fire. Soon the trenches were deepened to about seven feet. Other protective measures included camouflage and holes cut into trench walls then braced with timber. Trench warfare was also new for the Germans, whose training and equipment were designed for a mobile war to be won in six weeks, but they quickly adapted their weapons to the new situation. Siege howitzers now lobbed massive shells into the Allied trenches. Skilful use of trench mortars and hand and rifle grenades (first used against British troops on 27 September), enabled the Germans to inflict great losses upon Allied troops, who had neither been trained nor equipped with these weapons. Searchlights, flares and periscopes were also part of the German equipment intended for other purposes, but put to use in the trenches.

投稿日時 - 2019-06-01 15:18:42

QNo.9622081

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>Low crops in the unfenced countryside offered no natural concealment to the Allies. Deep, narrow paths cut into the escarpment at right angles, exposing any infiltrators to extreme hazard. The forces on the northern plateau commanded a wide field of fire.
 In dense fog on the night of 13 September, most of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) crossed the Aisne on pontoons or partially demolished bridges, landing at Bourg-et-Comin on the right and at Venizel on the left. At Chivres-Val east of Venizel, there was an escarpment the Germans had selected as their strongest position.
⇒連合国軍にとって柵のない田園地帯での低作物は自然の隠蔽役にならなかった。深く狭い道は急斜面を直角に切り込み、侵入者を極端な危険にさらした。北部台地の部隊は、広範囲の砲火を命じた。
 9月13日夜の濃い霧の中で、ほとんどの英国遠征隊(BEF)は浮橋または部分的に破壊された橋を渡ってエーヌを越え、右岸ではブー・レ・コマンに、左岸ではヴニズルに上陸した。ヴニズルの東のシヴル-ヴァルで、ドイツ軍が最強の陣地として選んだ断崖があった。

>The French Fifth Army crossed the Aisne at Berry-au-Bac and captured the eastern tip of Chemin des Dames, a steep ridge named after the royal coach road Louis XV had built for his daughters. Contact was established along the entire front. East of Chemin des Dames, the French Fourth, Fifth and Ninth armies made only negligible progress beyond the positions they had reached on 13 September. Under the thick cover of the foggy night, the BEF advanced up the narrow paths to the plateau. When the mist evaporated under a bright morning sun, they were mercilessly raked by fire from the flank. Those caught in the valley without the fog's protective shroud fared no better.
⇒フランス第5方面軍は、ベリー・オ・バックでエーヌ川を渡り、ルイXV世の娘たちのために造った王家の馬車道に因んで名づけられた急勾配の尾根「シェマン・デ・ダム」(貴婦人の道)の東端を攻略した。連絡が全前線に確立された。シェマン・デ・ダムの東でフランス第4、第5、および第9方面軍は、9月13日に達した陣地を超えてごくわずかな前進を遂げた。BEFは霧深い夜の帳の下で狭い道を通って高原へと進んだ。明るい朝の日差しの下で霧が蒸発したとき、彼らは側面から容赦ない砲火の総なめに出会った。保護としての霧の覆いなしで谷間に入り込んだ人々もそれほど良い状況ではなかった。

>It soon became clear that neither side could budge the other and since neither chose to retreat, the impasse hardened into stalemate, that would lock the antagonists into a relatively narrow strip for the next four years. On 14 September, Sir John French ordered the entire BEF to entrench, but few entrenching tools were available. Soldiers scouted nearby farms and villages for pickaxes, spades and other implements. Without training for stationary warfare, the troops merely dug shallow pits in the soil. These were at first intended only to afford cover against enemy observation and artillery fire. Soon the trenches were deepened to about seven feet.
⇒どちらの側も他者を相手にすることができず、どちらも後退することを選択しなかったので、行き詰まって袋小路に入り込み、敵対者たちは次の4年間比較的狭い範囲に閉じ込められることになった。9月14日、ジョン・フレンチ卿はBEF全体に塹壕を組むよう命じたが、塹壕を造る道具がほとんどなかった。兵士たちは近くの農場や村でつるはし、鋤、その他の用具を探した。静止戦のための訓練もなく、軍隊はただ単に土の中に浅い穴を掘った。これらは当初敵の観察と砲兵射撃を隠蔽することだけを意図していた。塹壕は間もなく約7フィートに深くに掘り下げられた。

>Other protective measures included camouflage and holes cut into trench walls then braced with timber. Trench warfare was also new for the Germans, whose training and equipment were designed for a mobile war to be won in six weeks, but they quickly adapted their weapons to the new situation. Siege howitzers now lobbed massive shells into the Allied trenches. Skilful use of trench mortars and hand and rifle grenades (first used against British troops on 27 September), enabled the Germans to inflict great losses upon Allied troops, who had neither been trained nor equipped with these weapons. Searchlights, flares and periscopes were also part of the German equipment intended for other purposes, but put to use in the trenches.
⇒その他の防護対策としては、カモフラージュや、塹壕の壁に穴を開けて木材で固定する方法が含まれた。6年以内に機動戦に勝利するように訓練や装備を設計したドイツ軍にとっても塹壕戦争は新しいものであったが、彼らはその新しい状況に武器を素早く適応させた。今や、包囲榴弾砲が連合国軍の塹壕に巨大な砲弾を投げ込んだ。塹壕のモルタル接合、手榴弾、ライフル榴弾(9月27日初めて英国軍に対して使用された)の巧妙な駆使は、これらの武器を使う訓練も装備もしていなかった連合国軍に対して、ドイツ軍が多大な損失を与えることを可能にした。サーチライト、照明弾、そして潜望鏡なども、他の目的のために意図されたドイツ軍の装置の一部であったが、それらが塹壕で使用するために用意された。

投稿日時 - 2019-06-04 21:30:15

お礼

回答ありがとうございました。

投稿日時 - 2019-06-06 18:42:55

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